Mani compared with Jesus the historical record


Below is a comparison of external references to Mani as compared to Jesus, broken down into thirds of a century after their accepted date of death (33CE vs 276CE)

I have indicated the number of references, with font size showing a broad classification of the size of the reference

a small reference (paragraph or so) and/or 1 or 2 mentions;

a moderate size reference (page or a few) and/or several mentions; (3-20)

a large reference (a detailed refutation, and/or a chapter or more) or numerous mentions. (21-50)

an entire work dedicated to refutation, and/or a very large number of references. (50+)


After Jesus' death

Years after

After Mani's death




Alexander of Lycopolis (16)

Arnobius (3)



Josephus (2 ?)



Archelaus (97)

Athanasius (7)



Tacitus (2)

Pliny (1)



Ephraim (88)

Cyril of Jerusalem (18)

Gregory of Nyssa (9)

Hilary of Poitiers (7)

Eusebius (1)

Gregory Nazianzen (1)






Augustine (154)

Jerome (12)

John Chrysostom (6)

Macarius Magnes (1)

Rufinous Tyranius (1)



Celsus (~40)

Lucian (1)

Galen (2)




Theodoretus (13)

Socrates Scholasticus (7)

Leo the Great (6)



by Kapyong


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